1. Who was Kondratuk?
He is a famous scientist. He is the author of the book "The conquest of interplanetary space". The first period of his life is characterized by the death of his parents. Then comes the second period. In this period he determined the main aim of his life, and solved such grandiose tasks, with which such genius like Zialkovsky could cope. Kondratuk changed his name, and turned his past into mystery (made his past mysterious). The third period of life is the most difficult in all respects. He lived under pseudonym. He lived so in twenties, thirties. But only in this period in his life he made the greatest effects to become famous in It and he succeeded. The forth period-is life after death, posthumous fame. Finally the fifth period - we see his works with his real name on his books.
2. Generation tree
He was born on 06 21 1897 in Paltauce His parents were Ignatiy Benediktovich and Ludmila Lvovna Shargei. The son was born, and they named him Alexandr. His mother's girl's family name is rare, it was Schlippenbanch. Maybe she was Scnlippenbanch's descendant, who was a great man and served Karl XII, then he served Peter I, we can't say it exactly. It's a version, but it is quite probably. Her second name is rather ancient. She taught children geography a French for four years in Kiev-Podolsk gymnasium, which was one empress Maria Alexandrovna's institutions. It's not known where his parents got acquainted. On 01.12.1897 Ignatiy Benediktovich Shargei baptized In Kievskl-Sofiiski Cathedral. In January they got married, and in July the son was born. Ignatiy Benediktovich Shargei was born on 03.25.1873 in Berdicnev in Jewish family. His father was Bendit Srulevich, who was born in Telzsenskogo yezd. May be Shargei Ignati Shargei got the second name Benediklovich after baptizing. Kondratuk's grandmother was Fridricha Izizovna, her girl's family name was Rozenfild. After the first marriage she became Shargei. Benedikt Srulevich died too early and left the family in poorty. She had two children. One of her sons died, his name was Alexandr. Later, she named two grandsons in his commemoration. Some years later she married Akim Nikitich, who was a doctor. When married Akim Nikitich, she baptized, and took a new name Ecaterina Kinlovna.
Ignati Shargei graduated from Poltava gymnasium in 1891. And he was admitted in Kiev University on the natural historical department of the Physic-mathematics Faculty. He attended this faculty for three years. In August 1895 he entered the other department of this faculty - mathematics department. There was a funeral service in commemoration Maria Vetrova, whose death was tragic. It took place on 03.04.1897. It turned into rebellion. Also in March of that year, students organized funeral service in Kiev. Police arrested many students, and Ludmila Lvovna Shargei was among them. She was spared from punishment soon. But she was very impressed and frustrated, her frustration turned into psycho-illness. In spring her husband brought her to his mother, who was an experienced mid- wife, because she was pregnant and it was high time to bring a baby.
The brightest Kondratuk's memories are connected with his mother. When his mother was taken into his hospital, he felt alone. His relatives understood it and were attentive towards him. He went with his brother fishing. His grandfather taught him to read and count His brother Volodya gave him a book on physics and Sasha read it up to the end and said that he understood everything and the book was interesting. Since then he lugged wire, iron into the house. He was constantly making a repairing something. He had an attraction to mechanics. But he was a good mixer, he had a lot of friends, with whom he played football. He read all the books on mechanics he could find in his father's library. Unfortunately his father died and his childhood was over.
Sasha lived at his granny’s. The same year he entered the 3d grade of second (2a) Paltava Gymnasium. He was head and shoulders above the rest of the pupils in exact sciences and he was a teacher's pet. This position did not do him good, because teacher's pet is not respected. He studied not only textbooks, but also journals, books on physics, technical descriptions. He aimed to repeat the second low of thermodynamics He remained himself aloof from his fellows, because he was concentrated on his work. Moving realized his vocation. A. I. Shargei closed the major affair of his life and devoted his life to it. Maybe his father, who did not realize his vocation, provoked him. Purposeful guest of himself was combined with the greatest persistence, fantastic ability to work hard.
Kondratuk loved poetry, and he was able to write verses. Zoya Matveevna Zenina, who knew Kondratuk well, said: "Kondratuk knew Pushkin's, Tolstoy's, Balzak's works. He liked Mozart. Beethoven; he admired Leonardo de Vinche's paintings. Early development of his brains could be compared with Hobart Viner's. Kondratuk knew higher mathematics when he was 14. He explored the conquest of Interplanetary space. He realized that his explorations were useful and decided to bring his manuscript "About Interplanetary Flights" in Moscow He changed his place of residence (address), and also his second name, he be came Kondratuk In 1925. He was 28 in fact, but according to the documents, he was 25.
6. The clock with lengthy wind mechanism
Y.V. Kondratuk did not wake up famous on the January morning in 1929. His colleagues congratulated him on finishing work on that book. They tried to understand the introduction to the book. But the book seemed fantastic for them. They liked him, but they were skeptic, suspicious towards his work. But he had like-minded persons. He thought that after publishing his book the project would be put into practice. But the project was not put into practice, and Kondratuk kept on building grain stores. The book woke his like-minded person’s interest. He began to correspond with Zialkovsky. On the last day of 1929 he gained patent. At the beginning of 1930 he got bonus, which he spent on investigations His future seemed difficult but productive to him. But suddenly obstacles arose.
Of course, the city is hot to blame for being (as some experts still believe) the stumbling block in Kondratuk's life. By chance ("irony of late"), the city is called Stone. To be more extract - Stone-on-Ob. The name of the city results from the surface exposure of the Salair range spur, smoothed away by time. In 1929 Yuri Kondratuk arrived in Stone-on-Ob. He was the author of the book famous not only in Russia, but all over the world. Kondratuk worked at a building project. And he really knew how to work. He designed a unique structure-warehouse-granary, nicknamed 'the Mastodon". Kondratuk would not shun and kind of work. He had almost no spare time, being deep in his work. The builders, assembling an elevator-conveyer for Stone-on-Ob conveyer, did not appreciate Kondratuk's suggestion of increase in the throughput of conveyer. They created somewhat in between Kondraluk's project and a traditional conveyer. The grain surplus, scooped up by buckets poured out on either side of the conveyer without being restrained. And before the traditional side shields were installed at the conveyer, someone had pronounced the world "sabotage", so favorite in those years and so dreadful in its consequences.
8. The Brand
In that epoch, the sabotage was determined as a highly dangerous crime and was specialized by the most bearful Clausen 58, accusing of antisoviet activity. So it was no wonder, that ‘the point of the case’ of Kondratuk remained secret for many years, and it created a wave of rumors, versions, suppositions. On the 2-nd of May, 1930, Peter Kirillovich Gorchakov was arrested. It was the beginning of a chain of operations in detection of a "sabotage gang" A chorus of new accusations resounded, and a new "term" "Gorchakovism" was added to a chain of told terms: ‘sabotage’, ‘criminal red tape’, etc. The attemptance statements on conveyers and will were collected, where the bad repair and absence of necessary equipment were pointed out. "Grainproject" did not stir a longer to protect its employees. Kondratuk was arrested in 3 months after Gorchakov's arrest, at the night of July 30, 1930. When arresting, NKVD produced a "Warriant for searching Yuri Vasilyevich Kondraluk. Address 120 Maxim Gorky Street, Apartament 1, or 95 Red Avenue". In November 1930, the cases of new members of the ‘crminal group’ were added to Kondratuk's case. NKVD arrested the chief engineer of the school and others. Neither Kondraluk's manuscripts , not his works on interplanetary flights were fixed in search records and inquiry papers. Probably, Yuri Kondratuk, afraid of an arrest, had hidden them. The verdict was "3 years in a consentration camp". Thus, a previous conviction came in his questionnaire. Only 30 years after his death, Kondratuk was rehabilitated. In the camp, Kondratuk asked for some mental work, and he was ordered to evaluate foreign equipment for Kusbass coal-mines .The Novosi birsk project workshop "Kusbass coal" was headed by N A. Chinakal. On looking through Kondratuk's evaluations, he suggested the engineer to bring up Kondratuk's own acceptable project. Actually, Kondratuk thought about this idea himself, and the new task did not take him unaware. In outline he drew a project of an unusual construction. Chinakal, on receiving the proiect, realized pretty well what a brilliant employee could the engineer become. And he started appealing for transferring Kondratuk and Gorchakov in his project bureau. On 18-th of November, 1931, OGPU judicial board made a decision: the confinement term wars tob remain the same, but for the rest of it Kondratuk and Gorchakov were to be deported to West Siberia to work at "Grainproject" 's and "Uniongrain"'s factories, But both engineers remained in "Kusbass building" though their status of prisoners was changed for "deported by administrative weans". In Siberia Kondratuk met Nikolay Vasilyevich Nikitin, a specialist on ferro-concrete. On 8-th of September, 1931, Kondratuk and Gorchakov applied for a patent on a tower ferro-concrete head-gear, built in a sliding formwork. The inventor's certificate was received much later, at the end of February 1934. And long after, on 18-th of May, 1970, by Supreme Court of the USSR boards decision, the OGPU board's resolution of May 10,1931 was abolished as an illegal one. Everyone accused according to the case was rehabilitated. Yuri Vasilyevich Kondratuk, also known as Alexandr Ignatyevich Shargey, suffered all the tortures, fallen to his lot, kept the secret of his name unsolved until the recent years. His names, both the first and the second - unblemished one , are added as a glorious chapter in the history of our Motherland.
9. The competition
The status of a deported man huminated Kondratuk and Gorchakov, it depressed them. A strict check and regimen showed, that to become really free they must do something really extraordinary. A competition for the best project of a powerful wind powerstation in the Crimea gave them a chance. The initiative to organize the competition belonged to Ordzhonlkidze. At first, Kondratuk worked at the idea without any enthusiasm, just for a bermal reply. But little-by-little, he became interested in the idea of a huge wind-wheel. From the very beginning he decided to build the tower of ferro-concrete, but it was too difficult to be calculated, and he asked N. V. Nikitin for a help. Wind power-station, designed by Kondratuk, consisted of a ferro-concele tubular tower that leaned with its conical base on an oil thrust beaming. The tower was about 150m high. On the top of it there was a machine-room with a generator and a wind-wheel, which had four blades with the diameter of 80m. In November of 1932, according to a contract with "Chiefenergy ", Kondratuk and Gorchakov with the help of Nikitin finished the rough draft of the power-station. The project, as well as some others, created by institutes, was appreciated by a Moscow commetee, and the authors were invited to Moscow. There, Kondratuk met Korolev, who invited the engineer to work at GIRD, but Kondratuk refused. The project turned to be the best. It won the competition and the winners - Kondratuk and Gorchakov - were invited to Ordzhonlkidze. It was an exiting moment in Kondratuk's life: his own project was the best.
10. Kondratuk's further life
In February of 1937, Ordzhonikidze, the enthusiast of powerful wind power stations, who used to support this idea, died. Right after his death, Kondratuk's project, that he was working at for 5 years, the project, appreciated by experts and confirmed by the Comissar, was suddenly, without any explanation, pronounced to be unacceptable in those conditions. In 1938 the office of the Crimean wind power station was abolished. Instead of it, a project experimental office of wind-power-stations was founded. Its head was Egorov. At the end of June, Kondratuk got to know that Korolyov was arrested. Warned about his manuscripts, Kondratuk found in Novosibirsk people, eager to keep them. His valuable papers and books were given to the family of Pyzhovs. In autumn, on the 5-th of September, Kondratuk sent his book to the museum of Tsialkovsky, founded in Kaluga. Fortunately, everything turned out to be all right. Kondratuk was not arrested, but it was no doubt that he was waiting for it every day. But even in that situation he was able to work. It his office, Kondratuk and his group created projects of all-metal wind power-stations with the power from 100 to 250 kw. The war caught him at an erection site near Moscow. And Yuri Vasilyevich left for Moscow and from the city - without a delay - he went to the war as a volunteer.
11. The War
Kondratuk went to the war as a volunteer, as a lot of men in those days. He kept in touch with his relatives and friends. At the beginning of October 1941, the divisioh where Kondraluk served, held the line Kirov-Fayansovaya-Ulyanovo-Korelsk-Belov. On the 3-rd of Oclober 1941, nazi's tanks breaked our defenses at the Desna and gained the south-west approaches to Kirov. The division, resisting the enemy's aviation, tanks and motorized infantry, suffered serious losses. According to one of the versions written by Kondratuk's biographists, and coidely disseminated, Kondratuk was killed in one of those battles. Even the extract date of his death was called: 0ctober 3, 1941. This date is used in some biographical reference-books. And when the version was firmly established, it turned out, that the inventor was not killed in October of 1941. Probably, the ahite-bled unit was reformed. It is testified by some documents. Kondratuk was killed in winter of 1942. "Alexandr Ignatyevich Shargey (Yuri Vasilyevich Kondratuk) 1897-1942" is to be written on his grave. But it seemed that Shargey- Kondratuk took the secrets of his name in his grave. But with the end of his life began his immorality. that had to pass a long, hard, exhausting "examination". To find out his real biography was comparatively easy, but the ill-willing people tried to hide it away, to make it secret. More and more obstacles and prohibitions appeared not to let anyone write about Kondraluk. But It has gone with the beginning of ‘glasnost epoch’. Soon afterwards a film about Kondratuk appeared on the screen. This film made an epoch in Kondratuk - steady.
By his nature, Alexandr Ignatyevich Shargey was both an idea-generator and an idea- realizator, a thinker and a creator. He has surpassed his time and a lot of his ideas were realized only dozens of years later. But one should not blame the fortune. Lndeed, his life was hard. Shargey belonged to a sort of people, who always choose an unexplored way, discovering greatest possibilities for studying the outer world. Moreover, he was too extraordinary and complex to have an easy life. Time was to pass before the idea, that he had devoted himself to, was appreciated, before the aim was reached. And only then he could be generally recognized. But even then, his strange, intricated biography was an obstacle for a real recognition. Known to dozens of people, who saw nothing "criminal" in it, Kondratuk's biography could not appear on pages or screens in its real, true variant for years. And how humanly it was understood now, when glasnost made not only Shargey's biography, but also the details of the epoch, a common knowledge. By these lines we can finish our narration about the life of Y V Kondratuk, without any doubt, that his name and his contribution in science of space pioneering will be not forgotten by our descendants, and their hearts will always keep love and respect to this great man.